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Are Squirrels Omnivores? (Or Are They Primary Consumers?)




Squirrels are small rodents, with long tails and include tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, flying squirrels, marmots, and prairie dogs1. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa.

Squirrels are omnivores (secondary consumers) and not herbivores (primary consumers) as most people think. This is because they eat a small number of insects and other small animals in addition to their mostly plant-based diet.

Their diet is mostly made up of berries, fruits, nuts, and fungi but they will occasionally eat insects, eggs, worms, and baby birds or reptiles2, 3.

Squirrels have large incisors, especially adapted for breaking open and eating hard nuts and acorns. Their teeth continue to grow throughout their whole life to prevent wear and tear2.

Squirrels cache food throughout the year, especially during autumn, in preparation for the winter months, when food is scarce.

Are Squirrels Really Omnivores?

Squirrels, like many other rodents, are omnivores since they eat both plants and animals.

While rodents, as a group, are often considered herbivorous, and their long incisors seen as an adaptation to feeding on hard nuts and grains, most rodents are opportunistic omnivores, and some are specialized insectivores.

Squirrels are really not much different from that of mice, gophers and groundhogs in their dietary preferences. Although they do have a proclivity towards nuts!

The specialized teeth of rodents happen to be well suited to an omnivorous diet, since the incisors are just as good at grabbing and killing insects as they are at breaking open nuts.5

Although squirrels can eat insects, their favorite meal will always be nuts!

Another good thing about nuts, is that they can be saved long term for winter!

Are Squirrels mostly Herbivores or Carnivores?

Squirrels are primarily herbivores, meaning their diet consists mainly of plant matter. However, it’s important to note that not all squirrel species have identical diets, and there are some variations in their feeding habits. Let’s delve into the topic in detail, exploring different squirrel species and their dietary preferences.

  1. Red Squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris): Red squirrels are commonly found in Europe and parts of Asia. They are predominantly herbivorous, with their diet primarily comprising seeds, nuts, berries, and various types of fungi. They particularly enjoy feasting on pine cones, acorns, and hazelnuts.
  2. Eastern Gray Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): Eastern gray squirrels are widespread in North America and are known for their adaptability. While they are mainly herbivores, they exhibit some omnivorous tendencies. Their diet primarily consists of nuts, seeds, fruits, and buds. However, they have been observed eating bird eggs, insects, small vertebrates, and even carrion on occasion.
  3. Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger): Fox squirrels, native to North America, have a broad diet that leans towards herbivory. They consume a variety of nuts, seeds, fruits, and buds. Additionally, they have been observed eating bird eggs, small reptiles, insects, and even tree sap.
  4. Western Gray Squirrels (Sciurus griseus): Western gray squirrels, native to the western regions of North America, primarily feed on plant material. Their diet consists of acorns, seeds, nuts, fungi, and buds. They occasionally supplement their diet with insects, bird eggs, and even small vertebrates.
  5. Flying Squirrels (Family Sciuridae): Flying squirrels are a group of small to medium-sized squirrels belonging to the family Sciuridae. There are various species of flying squirrels worldwide, and their dietary preferences can vary slightly. Generally, they are herbivorous, feeding on nuts, seeds, fruits, and tree sap. However, some species have been observed consuming insects, eggs, and small vertebrates.

While the aforementioned squirrel species are primarily herbivorous, it’s important to highlight that they may display opportunistic behaviors and occasionally incorporate animal matter into their diets. This adaptation can be attributed to factors such as resource availability, environmental conditions, and individual preferences.

Here’s a summarized breakdown of the primary diet of the discussed squirrel species:

Squirrel SpeciesPrimary DietAdditional Dietary Items
Red SquirrelsSeeds, nuts, berries, fungiPine cones, acorns, hazelnuts
Eastern Gray SquirrelsNuts, seeds, fruits, budsInsects, bird eggs, carrion
Fox SquirrelsNuts, seeds, fruits, buds, tree sapInsects, bird eggs, small reptiles
Western Gray SquirrelsAcorns, seeds, nuts, fungi, budsInsects, bird eggs, small vertebrates
Flying SquirrelsNuts, seeds, fruits, tree sapInsects, eggs, small vertebrates

In conclusion, squirrels are primarily herbivorous creatures, with the majority of their diet consisting of plant-based materials such as nuts, seeds, fruits, and buds. While some species may exhibit omnivorous tendencies and occasionally consume insects, eggs, or small vertebrates, their diet is still predominantly herbivorous.

Is a squirrel a primary consumer

A squirrel is not considered a primary consumer in the traditional ecological sense. Primary consumers, also known as herbivores, are organisms that directly consume producers or autotrophs, which are typically plants or algae.

Squirrels, on the other hand, are omnivores, meaning they have a diet that includes both plant and animal matter. While they primarily feed on nuts, seeds, fruits, and other plant materials, they also consume insects, eggs, small birds, and occasionally small mammals.

In the context of food chains and trophic levels, primary consumers occupy the second trophic level, directly above the producers. They play a crucial role in transferring energy from plants to higher trophic levels. Typical examples of primary consumers include rabbits, deer, cows, and many insects, such as caterpillars.

Squirrels are secondary consumers when they eat insects.

Squirrels do consume plant material and play a role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Their diet primarily consists of nuts from trees, such as acorns and hazelnuts, and they are known for their habit of burying these nuts to store them for later consumption. In the process of caching nuts, squirrels often forget where they buried some of them, which results in the unintentional planting of trees as these forgotten nuts may eventually germinate.

However, squirrels are not strictly herbivorous. They possess sharp incisors that allow them to gnaw through various objects, including hard shells, to access the nutritious contents inside. This ability to consume animal matter, although not their primary food source, categorizes squirrels as omnivores.

Omnivores occupy an intermediate position in the food chain, as they can consume both plants and other animals. They are considered secondary consumers, which typically occupy the third trophic level. Secondary consumers obtain energy by feeding on primary consumers or other organisms at a lower trophic level. Predatory animals like lions, bears, and eagles are examples of secondary consumers.

To summarize, while squirrels primarily consume plant materials, their occasional consumption of animal matter, including insects and small vertebrates, classifies them as omnivores rather than strictly herbivorous primary consumers. This broader diet allows them to adapt to a wider range of food sources and environments.

Are Squirrels Autotrophs or Heterotrophs?

Squirrels are heterotrophs because they eat other living organisms. Autotrophs are producers and heterotrophs are consumers.

Autotrophs include plants, algae and bacteria that can photosynthesize. Practically no animals are autotrophic because animals do not get their energy directly from the sun like plants do.

Can Squirrels be Considered Decomposers?

Squirrels do not eat dead or decaying matter and are therefore not decomposers.

On the other hand, the bacteria in the guts of squirrels play a very important role for their digestion and these microorganisms may be considered true decomposers.

When squirrels hibernate, their gut bacteria break down urea molecules into ammonia, using a special enzyme that animals cannot produce4.

Microbes then use the ammonia to make protein, essentially recycling nitrogen in the body. This process keeps squirrels strong during their long winter fast.

Where are Squirrels in the Food Chain?

Squirrels are low down on the food chain, just above the plants that they eat. They are placed on the second trophic level of the energy pyramid (producers, like plants, make up the first trophic level).

To understand the placement of squirrels within the food chain, we need to examine their dietary habits, predators, and their impact on the overall ecosystem.

Squirrels are classified as herbivores, primarily consuming plant-based material such as seeds, nuts, fruits, and tree bark. Their diet often varies depending on the species of squirrel and the availability of food sources in their habitats.

For instance, tree squirrels predominantly feed on nuts, acorns, and seeds, while ground-dwelling squirrels may consume a broader range of plant material, including fruits and vegetables. Nonetheless, the common theme among squirrels is their reliance on plant matter for sustenance.

As herbivores, squirrels hold a vital position in the food chain as primary consumers. They directly consume and process energy from plants, thereby serving as a link between producers (plants) and other consumers in the ecosystem.

Consumers in the food chain.

By foraging on various plant parts, squirrels assist in seed dispersal. They inadvertently contribute to the distribution and germination of seeds, aiding in the regeneration and biodiversity of forests and other habitats.

In terms of predation, squirrels face a range of natural predators. Some common predators of squirrels include birds of prey (such as hawks and owls), snakes, carnivorous mammals (such as foxes, coyotes, and domestic cats), and larger predatory birds like eagles. These predators, often referred to as secondary consumers, rely on squirrels as a food source to fulfill their own nutritional needs. The presence of squirrels in the food chain supports the survival and sustenance of their predators.

It’s important to note that squirrels also serve as prey for several other organisms. While they predominantly occupy a position as primary consumers, they can also become a part of the diet of tertiary consumers. For example, some larger predatory mammals like bears or raptors like golden eagles may occasionally prey upon squirrels, especially when other food sources are scarce. In these instances, squirrels act as a valuable energy source for higher-level consumers.

In addition to their role as consumers and prey, squirrels contribute to ecosystem functioning through their behaviors. Squirrels are known for their hoarding behavior, wherein they gather and store excess food in various locations known as caches. This behavior helps them survive during periods of food scarcity, but it also has ecological implications. Squirrels often fail to retrieve their entire cache, resulting in the accidental burial or abandonment of seeds. These forgotten caches can sprout and grow into new plants, thereby promoting forest regeneration and contributing to the overall health of the ecosystem.

In summary, squirrels are an integral part of the food chain, primarily occupying the position of primary consumers as herbivores. They play a crucial role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration, and they provide sustenance for a variety of predators. While they can occasionally become prey for higher-level consumers, their overall impact on the ecosystem is significant, contributing to the functioning, diversity, and balance of their respective habitats.

However, when they eat eggs or insects, they move to a higher trophic level. They also serve as a meal to many predators, making them a very important part of the food chain.

What are squirrel’s trophic level?

The squirrel’s trophic level can vary depending on its specific diet and ecological niche within its respective ecosystem. Generally, squirrels can be classified as primary consumers or herbivores, occupying the second trophic level in many food chains. However, it’s important to note that not all squirrel species have identical diets or ecological roles, resulting in some variation in their trophic positions.

  1. Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris):
    The red squirrel is a common species found in Europe and parts of Asia. It primarily feeds on seeds, nuts, berries, and tree bark. As an herbivore, it consumes plant material directly, placing it at the second trophic level as a primary consumer.
  2. Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis):
    The gray squirrel is native to North America and is known for its adaptability and widespread distribution. Its diet consists of a variety of foods, including nuts, seeds, fruits, fungi, and even bird eggs or nestlings. While it is primarily herbivorous, occasionally displaying omnivorous tendencies, its main role is that of a primary consumer.
  3. Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger):
    The fox squirrel is another North American species that inhabits a range of habitats, including woodlands and urban areas. Its diet is similar to the gray squirrel, encompassing nuts, seeds, fruits, and plant material. Thus, it occupies the second trophic level as a primary consumer.
  4. Flying Squirrel (Pteromyini):
    Flying squirrels belong to a tribe called Pteromyini, which includes various species found across different continents. These nocturnal squirrels have a diet predominantly composed of nuts, seeds, fruits, and tree sap. Despite their gliding abilities and slightly different ecological adaptations, they are still considered primary consumers.
  5. Ground Squirrel (Xerinae):
    Ground squirrels, also known as chipmunks, prairie dogs, or marmots, are a diverse group of rodents found in different regions worldwide. Their diet consists of seeds, nuts, fruits, plant material, and occasionally insects. Similar to other squirrel species, they primarily occupy the second trophic level as herbivorous or omnivorous primary consumers.

While the majority of squirrel species are herbivorous and occupy the second trophic level as primary consumers, it is worth mentioning that some squirrels can exhibit opportunistic or omnivorous behaviors. For example, certain ground squirrels may consume insects, bird eggs, or carrion in addition to their plant-based diet. These additional food sources do not significantly alter their trophic level but highlight their adaptability and flexibility in foraging strategies.

In summary, squirrels, including species such as the red squirrel, gray squirrel, fox squirrel, flying squirrel, and ground squirrel, are generally considered primary consumers or herbivores. However, some squirrels may display opportunistic or omnivorous tendencies, incorporating additional food sources into their diets. Overall, the trophic level of squirrels highlights their importance as primary consumers in various ecosystems, contributing to energy flow and nutrient cycling within their respective food webs.

Why are squirrels important to the environment?

Squirrels food-caching activities play an important role in dispersing the seeds of trees such as acorns and pines.

They often forget where they cache their food, and these nuts then either become food for other animals, or they germinate.

Additionally, when they eat fruits and nuts, the seeds pass through their digestive system and are then deposited in new areas, which help to promote plant growth in different areas.

Squirrels also help to control the plant populations by eating their seeds and fruits. Squirrels are found in a wide variety of habitats, from deserts to rainforests.

In all these environments they play an important role in the ecosystem.

What Animals Prey on Squirrels?

Squirrels are small to medium-sized rodents that belong to the family Sciuridae. They are widely distributed across different ecosystems, including forests, parks, and urban areas. As prey animals, squirrels face numerous predators in their natural habitats. Let’s explore some of the animals that prey on squirrels.

  1. Birds of Prey:
    Birds of prey, such as hawks, eagles, and owls, are formidable predators that pose a significant threat to squirrels. These birds have excellent vision and powerful talons, which they use to capture and subdue their prey. Hawks, in particular, are known for their aerial hunting skills, swooping down from the sky to snatch squirrels off the ground or from trees.
  2. Canids:
    Several canid species, including foxes and coyotes, have been observed preying on squirrels. These opportunistic predators are skilled hunters and adapt their hunting strategies based on the available food sources. While larger foxes and coyotes may actively pursue squirrels, smaller species like the red fox are more likely to scavenge on squirrel carcasses.
  3. Snakes:
    Certain snake species are known to prey on squirrels. Tree-dwelling snakes like the eastern rat snake and the coachwhip snake are skilled climbers that can pursue squirrels in the treetops. They may coil around the squirrels’ bodies or ambush them, relying on constriction to overpower and kill their prey.
  4. Carnivorous Mammals:
    Numerous carnivorous mammals consider squirrels as a potential food source. These include large predators like bears, bobcats, and mountain lions. Although squirrels are not their primary prey, these mammals will opportunistically hunt squirrels when the opportunity arises.
  5. Domestic Cats:
    In urban and suburban areas, domestic cats pose a significant threat to squirrels. Cats are natural hunters and have been introduced to environments where squirrels thrive. Given their agility and hunting instincts, domestic cats can successfully ambush and catch squirrels that venture too close to human habitation.
  6. Other Rodents:
    Squirrels may also face predation from other rodents, such as weasels, minks, and rats. These smaller predators are quick and agile, allowing them to pursue squirrels in their burrows or chase them on the ground.
  7. Humans:
    While humans are not natural predators of squirrels, there have been instances where people hunt or trap squirrels for various reasons. In some cultures, squirrels are considered a food source and are hunted for their meat. Additionally, squirrels may fall victim to accidental harm due to human activities like vehicle collisions or habitat destruction.

It is important to note that the presence and significance of these predators may vary depending on the specific squirrel species and the habitat in which they reside. Factors such as geographical location, climate, and available resources influence the predator-prey dynamics in different regions.

Squirrels have evolved various adaptations to evade predators, such as their agility, ability to climb trees quickly, and their sharp senses. They rely on their keen eyesight and hearing to detect potential threats and react swiftly to escape predation. Additionally, their ability to leap between trees and use complex escape routes helps increase their chances of survival.

Understanding the predators that pose a threat to squirrels provides valuable insight into the complex ecological relationships within ecosystems. It also highlights the importance of conservation efforts to maintain healthy predator-prey dynamics and preserve the delicate balance of our natural environments.


In this blog post we have looked into the dietary preferences and feeding habits of the squirrel.

Squirrels play an important role in their ecosystem, both as seed dispersers and as a source of food for predators. Despite eating mostly plants, they are opportunistic omnivores, like many of their rodent relatives.

Squirrels are also very important for our ecosystem, mostly as primary consumer eating nuts and plants.

They are also important for controlling the numbers of other animals and plants in the ecosystem by eating their seeds and insects.


  1. Musser G. 2020. Squirrel. Britannica.
  2. Bradford A. 2016. Squirrels: Diet, habits & other facts. Live Science.
  3. Massachusetts Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. 2022. Learn about squirrels.
  4. Cary HV, Regan M. 2022. Gut microbes help hibernating ground squirrels emerge strong and healthy in spring. The Conversation.
  5. Landry SO. 1970. The rodentia as omnivores. The Quarterly Review of Biology. 45(5): 351-372. https://doi.org/10.1086/406647

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